What Is The Human Respiratory System And Animal Respiratory System
Every organism needs oxygen to survive. This oxygen reaches the cells and produces energy by oxidizing food substances. We breathe in oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide. Water and CO2 are formed as a result of oxidation of food substances by oxygen and energy is released, this is called respiration. Let’s know about the Respiratory System.
What is respiration?
The word respiration is the Hindi version of the English language ‘Respiration’ which is derived from the Latin word ‘respirate’. Respirate means ‘to breathe’. The process of respiration occurs in different ways in plants and animals. Under respiration, there are two processes of exhalation and expiration respectively. The organs which take part in the respiratory process are called respiratory organs and this system is called the respiratory system.
Energy (ATP) = Food O2
Difference Between Inhalation And Expiratory Respiration
The difference in human respiratory system is given below-
- In respiration, there is contraction in the interstitial muscles and diaphragm.
- The thoracic cavity moves outwards.
- The volume of the thoracic cavity increases.
- The pressure of the thoracic cavity decreases.
- concentration decreases.
- Due to diffusion, the gas enters the body from outside.
- In this process the diaphragm flattens out.
- Inhalation takes 2 seconds.
- The thoracic cavity moves inwards.
- The volume of the thoracic cavity decreases.
- The pressure of the thoracic cavity increases.
- The concentration increases.
- Due to diffusion, gases are expelled from inside the body.
- In this process the diaphragm is straightened.
- External respiration takes 3 seconds.
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Respiration In Animals
In animals, respiration is the process of taking in and using oxygen and removing carbon dioxide. It is a process by which humans take oxygen from the atmosphere and remove the carbon dioxide produced as a result of certain chemical changes in the cells. A healthy adult person takes in 250ml of oxygen per minute and gives off 200 ml of carbon dioxide.
The organs which take part in this process are called respiratory organs and this system is called respiratory system.
Parts of Respiratory System
The following organs are included in the human respiratory system
The nose is the first and most important respiratory organ. It has a large cavity called the nasal cavity which is divided into two parts by a septum.There are two holes or stoma in front (out side) and behind the nasal cavity.The front or external openings are called nostrils or anterior nasal foramen which carry air from outside to the inside and the posterior ones are called lateral nasal foramen which open from the nasal cavity behind into the pharynx.
The structure of the nasal cavity is made up of bones and cartilages. The upper part of the nasal cavity is made up of the perforated plate of the ethmoid bone, the hyoid (sphenoid bone), the frontal or frontal bone and the nasal bones. The nose has two parts.
It is a triangular frame made of bones and cartilage. The skin is covered from above. There are two nostrils on the inner side of the nose.
These two cavities are divided into two parts. In each cavity there are many tiny hairs which we call Coarse Hair. These hairs filter the oxygen we take in by breathing and send it forward, so that the dust particles are not able to enter.
In the Respiratory System, the muscular tract behind the nasal cavities for air to the larynx and from the mouth to the esophagus for food is called the pharynx. The upper part of the pharynx is formed by the main part of the sphenoid bone and the lower part remains mixed with the esophagus. It is a muscular tube 12 to 14 cm long, located near the base of the cranium and behind the nasal cavity, oral cavity and larynx, whose upper end is wide.
The pharynx has the following three parts:
This is the part of the pharynx that is located behind the nostrils above the palatine line. It has lymphoid tissue on its back wall. Those are called pharyngeal tonsils or adenoids. Sometimes this tissue enlarges and creates obstruction in the pharynx, which allows the child to breathe through the mouth. The auditory tubes open into the lateral walls of the nasopharynx and from these the air reaches the middle ear which mixes with the interior of the nose.
It is the mouth part of the pharynx, which starts below the level of the soft palate and reaches the level of the upper part of the function of the third cervical vertebra. The walls of the pharynx merge into the soft palate to form two parts on each side. The lateral soft palate of the pharynx is aligned. Between these walls are bulges of lymphatic tissue called palato-glossal arches. These are called palatine tonsils.
This is the posterior part of the larynx of the pharynx, which remains from the level of the hyoid bone to the back of the larynx. The respiratory and digestive systems are separated from this part of the pharynx. From the front, the air enters the larynx and the food from the back goes into the esophagus.
The larynx is a muscular temporal airway between the lower part of the pharynx and the windpipe. In which there are vocal cords, this larynx connects the pharynx to the windpipe. It extends from the bottom of the tongue (tongue) to the windpipe. It is located in front of the third, fourth, fifth and sixth cervical vertebrae in adult males and higher than this in children and adult females. At the onset of puberty, the larynx grows more rapidly in males than in females.
It is also called the windpipe. It is a cylindrical tube. Its length is 10 cm and its diameter is 2 to 2.5 cm. It extends from the larynx to the fifth thoracic vertebra, where it splits into two bronchi. It consists of 16-20 incomplete rings of cartilage. These ring rings are incomplete at the back where the two ends of the ring are joined by fibrous tissue. There is also little muscular tissue in this position.
5) Bronchi Tubes
Both the air tubes are slightly separated from the windpipe. The right side air duct is slightly shorter, wider and straighter than the left side air duct. They reach the right and left lungs. After that, it divides into many smaller branches which we call bronchial tubes and bronchi.
The diaphragm is a sheet of inner striated muscle that extends to the bottom of the ribs. The diaphragm separates the thoracic cavity, that is, the heart, lungs, and ribs from the ventral cavity and plays an important role in respiration. When it is compressed, the volume of the thoracic cavity increases and air is drawn into the lungs.
There are two lungs in the human body. These organs play an important role in the breathing process. It is present as a pair in animals; the wall of the lungs is spongy due to the presence of numerous cavities. It is located in the thoracic cavity and the blood is purified in it. The blood contains a mixture of oxygen and the main function of the lungs is to carry oxygen from the atmosphere into the circulation and to absorb carbon dioxide from the blood and release it into the atmosphere. This exchange of gases takes place in innumerable small thin-walled air vesicles called ‘alveoli’. This pure blood reaches the heart through the pulmonary artery, from where it is again carried to various organs.
Respiratory System Function
The functions of the respiratory system in human respiratory system are given below-
The important function of the respiratory system is to continuously supply oxygen to the cells of the body. The exchange of gases in all parts of the body is the main function of this system. Humans cannot survive without oxygen because if the supply of oxygen is stopped in a human for more than 4 minutes, then the human will often die. Therefore, a continuous supply of oxygen is essential for survival.
Another important function of the respiratory system is to remove carbon dioxide, water vapor and other waste materials from the body. Both these functions are done through internal and external respiration.
Process of Respiration
Some of the process of respiration in human respiratory system are as follows:
This process of respiration is a process through which the lungs expand to take in oxygen and then contract to take the air out. All the muscles of the head, neck, thorax, abdomen etc. are involved in this whole process of respiration. However, in normal breathing, the main muscles of respiration are the rib muscles and the diaphragm. The process of respiration includes inhalation or inhalation and exhalation or exhalation. whose description is as follows
Catching My Breath
When we inhale, the muscles between the ribs actively contract to expand the cavity of the chest. The ribs and the sternum move up and out. The diaphragm also contracts and moves downward and the depth of the chest increases. The capacity of the thorax also increases and the pressure between the lungs decreases. The lungs expand to fill the chest cavity. The pressure in the air cells is now less than the pressure of the atmosphere. Therefore, air from the atmosphere is drawn into the air sacs.
Exhale or Exhale
When we inhale, that is, exhale, the muscles of the ribs get relaxed. The ribs and the sternum go down and inwards. The diaphragm moves upward. The depth of the chest decreases. The capacity of the thorax decreases and the pressure increases which forces the lungs to expel air.
How does the respiratory system work?
Respiratory System in Hindi There are mainly two phases of the respiratory system, first in which we breathe in and second when we exhale. Other gases also come. But our body uses only oxygen gas and expels all other gases.
As soon as we breathe, our diaphragm moves down, giving space for our lungs to expand. Sinus is an area between the bones in our head, when we breathe, the sinus keeps the air temperature in balance and prevents the dust particles present in the air from entering our body.
After this, the air reaches our lungs through the wind pipe, every person has two lungs. After this the cells use oxygen to make energy.
Before exhaling, the body exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide, when a person exhales, the diaphragm contracts and presses on the lungs, allowing air to escape.
respiration in plants
Respiration in plants is the process of taking in and using carbon dioxide and removing oxygen. Plants require oxygen to breathe and then release carbon dioxide. For this reason, plants have such a system, which ensures the availability of oxygen.
How do plants respire?
There can be many reasons for how plants respire without a respiratory system.
- Each part of the plant takes care of its gas exchange requirement. There is very little transport of gases from one part of the plant to another.
2) There is not much demand for exchange of gases in plants. Respiration in root, stem and leaf is much slower than in animals. It is only during photosynthesis that there is a great exchange of gases and each leaf is fully adapted to meet its needs during this period. when the cell respires. There is no problem of oxygen availability, as oxygen is released in the cell during photosynthesis.
3) Gases do not diffuse over long distances in large bulky plants. In plants, every living cell is located very close to the surface of the plant.
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How to make the respiratory system strong?
In today’s time, it has become a common thing to have respiratory system disorders due to pollution, diseases and unhealthy food. For this we should keep our respiratory system strong, we can take the following measures to strengthen the respiratory system.
Eat good and healthy food: – Because most of the diseases are due to bad food, so we should eat well balanced and healthy food which gives strength to our body and helps in our mental and physical development.
Do not let the body weight increase: – Due to the increasing wrong diet nowadays, obesity has increased a lot, many people are obese nowadays obesity is a terrible disease in itself and it can give rise to thousands of diseases, so obesity Avoid and keep your weight under control.
Do not smoke:- Smoking is very harmful for our health, avoid smoking and also stay away from people who smoke.
Try to avoid pollution:- We cannot avoid pollution for 24 hours, yet we should avoid pollution as much as possible because nowadays health problems have increased a lot due to pollution.
Avoid the person suffering from infection: – Avoid people who have viral or any infection.
Exercise regularly: – Do yoga and exercise regularly, this will keep your body fit and when your body is fit then you will not have any kind of problem.
What are respiratory system disorders?
Many organs are used in our respiratory system, different organs have different functions. Huh.
- Asthma: Asthma is a disease which is quite common nowadays and occurs to most of the people because the pollution is very high.
- People usually get infections very quickly and many people get infections related to the respiratory system very quickly.
- Respiratory system-related problems can sometimes occur due to any disease.
- Growing age After one age, problems in the respiratory system start and this is normal.
- Injuries If a person gets any kind of injury, then it can also cause problems in the respiratory system. List of diseases associated with the respiratory system.
- Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
- Lung Cancer
- Cystic Fibrosis/Bronchiectasis
- Pleural Effusion
- Chronic Bronchitis
- Kinavan was discovered by Cruikshank. The word fermentation is used for those actions-
- In which incomplete breakdown of glucose by oxy and anoxic respiration of various bacteria and fungi.
- Formation of CO2 and ethyl alcohol along with other organic acids such as acetic acid, oxalic
Acids etc. are formed, the product formed in the fermentation process is divided into the following types.
- Alcoholic Fermentation, 2. Lactic Acid Fermentation, 3. Acetic Acid Fermentation, 4. Butyric Acid Fermentation.
It was described by Hans Kreb in 1937 AD. It is also called the citric acid cycle or tricarboxylic cycle.
- It takes place only in the presence of special enzymes inside the mitochondria.
- The Krebs cycle is the second and final reaction of respiration.
- In this, various organic acids are formed from pyruvic acid.
- Many enzymes control this action.
- 36 ATP molecules are formed in this process. Thus a total of 38 ATP molecules are formed in respiration.
- It was first studied by Embden Meyer Hoff, Parson. That’s why it is also called EMP path.
- It is also called anoxic respiration or sugar fermentation. It releases energy in the absence of oxygen.
- systematically decomposed into various living tissues
- The conversion of hexose (usually glucose) to pyruvic acid by the reaction is called glycolysis.
A healthy human normally breathes 16 to 20 times in a minute. The number of breaths at different ages is as follows-
- age number per minute
- 35 per minute for two months to two years
- 23 per minute for two years to six years
- 20 per minute from six years to twelve years
- From twelve years to fifteen years 18 per minute
Fifteen years to twenty one years 16 to 18 per minute